These notes correspond to the first 3 chapters of Being & Time. There is an earlier post devoted to the Introduction section.
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existentia —> Being-present-at-hand
existence —> designation of Being (Dasein)
Dasein is not its “what” but its Being
In each case, Dasein is mine to be in one way or another
That entity which in its Being has this very Being as an issue, comports itself towards its Being as its ownmost possibility.
Authenticity / Inauthenticity
[grounded in the fact that any Dasein whatsoever is characterized by mineness]
inauthenticity does not signify any less Being —> when busy, excited, etc.
– Dasein determines itself as an entity in light of a possibility which it is itself.
– Problem of its Being is developed from the existentiality of its existence.
– Should be uncovered in the undifferentiated character which it has for the most part.
– Undifferentiated character of Dasein’s everydayness is not nothing, but a positive phenomenal characteristic
Everyday undifferentiated character of Dasein —> [averageness]
*That which is ontically closest & well known, is ontologically the farthest & not known at all
[the mode of fleeing, in the face of it & forgetfulness thereof]
existentialia: characters of Being defined in terms of existentiality
categories: characteristics of Being for entities whose character is not that of Dasein
[letting something be seen]
Any entity is either a who or a what
Always ‘there’ already
material gets collected
Everydayness as a mode of Dasein’s Being even & especially when that Dasein is active in a highly developed & differentiated culture.
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Being-in-the-World in general as the basic state of Dasein
a steady light
Mineness as condition which makes authenticity an inauthenticity possible —> Dasein always in either of two modes or else modally undifferentiated.
Grounded upon “Being-in-the-world”
Unitary phenomenon: primary datum must be seen as a whole
“Being-in” is thus the formal existential expression for the Being of Dasein, which has Being-in-the-world as its essential state.
Factual Being-present-at-hand —> whenever Dasein is, it is a fact & the factuality of such a Fact is what we call Dasein’s “facticity”
Facticity: an entity ‘within-the-world’ has Being-in-the-world in such a way that it can understand itself as bound up in its ‘destiny’ with the Being of these entities which it encounters within its own world.
Existential modality of Being-in
Knowing the world — addressing oneself to the world — discussing it
When one asks for the positive signification of this ‘inside’ of immanence in which knowing is proximally enclosed, or when one inquires how this ‘Being inside’ which knowing possesses has its own character of Being grounded in the kind of Being which belongs to the subject, then silence reigns.
Implication: knowing is a mode of Being of Dasein as Being-in-the-world
But, problem of knowledge is nullified, one presupposes that knowing is already alongside the world.
What higher court is to decide whether & in what sense there is to be a problem of knowledge other than the phenomenon of knowing
Knowing is grounded beforehand in a Being-already-alongside-the-world
Being-in-the-world as concern, is fascinated by the world with which it is concerned
If knowing is possible as a way of determining the nature of the present-at-hand by observing it, then there must be a deficiency in our having-to-do with the world concernfully.
Perception is consummated when one addresses oneself to something as something and discusses it as such. This amounts to interpretation in the broadest sense;
Perception becomes an act of making determinate.
Inner sphere is not abandoned when Dasein dwells ‘outside’ alongside entities to be known
Even in a “Being-outside’ alongside the object, Dasein is still inside, as a Being-in-the-World which knows.
The perceiving of what is known does not return to an inside, the Dasein which knows remains outside.
[modifications of the primordial Being-in]
Modes of Being-in-the-world constitute for knowing
Dasein achieves a new status of Being towards a world which has already been discovered in Dasein itself.
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III. The Worldhood of the World
entities within the world are Things
the thinghood of things
Nature is itself an entity which is encountered within the world.
Is ‘world’ a characteristic of Dasein’s Being?
Is ‘world’ subjective?
“Worldhood is an ontological concept, and stands for the structure of one of the constitutive items of Being-in-the-world
Worldhood itself is an existentiale
World: the totality of those entities which can be present-at-hand within the world
World: the Being of the totality of entities, the term that encompasses a multiplicity of entities. ‘World’ of a mathematician signifies realm of possible objects of mathematics.
World: not those entities which Dasein is not, but rather the ‘wherein’ a factical Dasein lives the public we-world or ones ‘own’ closest domestic environment.
World: the ontologico-existential concept of worldhood.
Worldhood itself may have as its modes whatever structural wholes any special ‘world’ may have at the time; but it embraces in itself the aprior; character of worldhood in general.
If one fails to see Being-in-the-world as a state of Dasein, the phenomenon of worldhood likewise gets passed over.
A 15. The Being of the Entities Encountered in the Environment
“dealings” in the world & with entities within-the-world
dealings as the kind of concern which manipulates things & puts them to use; this has its own kind of knowledge.
Thinghood & Reality
entities which we encounter in concern: “equipment”
Circumspection: the sight of things to accommodate themselves in-order-to
Action must employ theoretical cognition if it is not to remain blind.
Observation is a kind of concern is just as primordial as the fact that action has its own kind of sight.
[the work] to be produced as the towards-which
Production itself as a using of something for something
towards-which of usability whereof of which it consists
wind is wind in the sails
to catch sight of the “towards-this”